Cybersecurity Terms You Should Know – Part 3

Cybersecurity requires a ton of knowledge across many different areas and seemingly all at once. This short series of articles aims to give newer friends some guidance. If I did something dumb, please let me know on twitter @digibeard_yt or you can email at Let’s Go!
Part 1 and Part 2


Hardening a resource or system is a method of limiting access from the outside. This could be closing unused ports, disabling or enabling different options throughout the OS or web app.

Hash Function

Hash functions in programming are used to maintain or confirm data integrity by mapping fixed values into a string.


A honeypot is an intentionally vulnerable system used to lure attackers. Once the attackers are exploiting the honeypot, you can observe their tactics or feel slightly smug watching them waste their time on a (hopefully) secured and isolated machine.


HIPAA is the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act and it exists to protect patient privacy for anyone working with healthcare data.

Input Validation

This is a method of ensuring that data a user inputs before sending elsewhere in your system is sanitized and hardened against database vulnerabilities.


The state of being whole and undivided. Fitting since you want to ensure the data received by the client is the same as what the server actually sent. To ensure no tampering of the data has occurred, you’d use hasing or encryption.

Intrusion Detection System (IDS)

These range from software to dedicated hardware but these are similar to firewalls. They can filter in addition to sounding the alarm when someone has made it past your defenses. Tune your alerts accordingly so you don’t inundate your people with false positives.

IP Spoofing

This is when you change the source IP address of any packet to fool a target machine into thinking the request it received was from a legitimate machine.

JohnTheRipper (JTR)

JTR is an open-source password security auditing and recovery tool available for most operating systems. It tests for weak passwords and hundreds of additional hashes and ciphers.


Kerberos is the default authorization system used in Microsoft Windows. Kerberos makes use of a much more robust encryption system.


Keyloggers come in either a software or a hardware variety. The aim is the same, capture all keystrokes that the user(s) make on a system.

Logic Bomb

A logic bomb is a string of malicious code inserted intentionally into a program to harm a machine or the wider network after certain conditions are met.

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)

LDAP is a lightweight client/server protocol on Windows machines, it;s a central part of authentication. LDAP stores usernames and passwords to continually validate users on a network.

Part1, and Part2.